Akhter, S., Shefa, J., Quader, M. A., Talukder, K., Hussain, A. E., Kundu, G. K., Fatema, K., Alam, S. T., Islam, K. A., Rahman, M. S., Rahman, M. M., Hasan, Z., & Mannan, M. (2022). Autism spectrum disorder among 16- to 30-month-old children in Bangladesh: Observational cross-sectional study. Autism, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/13623613221135297
Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that includes deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted and repetitive behaviours, interests, or activities. This survey was done to assess autism spectrum disorder prevalence in 16- to 30-month-old children at an urban–rural distribution and determine the association of socioeconomic and demographic conditions. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 districts of Bangladesh. Three-stage cluster sampling was used with ‘Red Flag’, Modified Checklist for Toddlers and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, respectively. Data editing and analysis were done using CSPro 6 and SPSS 23. The survey included 37,982 households (71% rural, 29% urban) with 38,440 children. ‘Red Flag’ was positive in 209/10,000 children. Modified Checklist for Toddlers was positive in 149/10,000 children. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition–positive autism spectrum disorder prevalence was 17/10,000 young children (boys 24/10,000, girls 9.8/10,000). Prevalence was higher in urban than rural (25/10,000 and 14/10,000 respectively). It was 77/10,000 in mothers aged 35–39 years and 23/10,000 in children of fathers aged 40 years. For families within the lowest wealth quintile, the autism spectrum disorder prevalence was 15/10,000. Autism spectrum disorder at very young ages in Bangladesh is still low. It was higher in urban areas, with the advanced age of parents, especially mothers, and in families with higher wealth quintiles.
A nationwide survey was done in Bangladesh to assess autism spectrum disorder prevalence in 16- to 30-month-old children at urban–rural distribution and to determine the association with socioeconomic and demographic conditions. A three-stage cluster sampling method was used where districts from all divisions were selected in the first stage, census enumeration areas as blocks of households were selected in the second stage and households (within the blocks) were selected in the third stage. Thereby, it included 38,440 children from 37,982 households (71% rural, 29% urban) aged 16–30 months from 30 districts of eight divisions of Bangladesh. Screening was done with a ‘Red Flag’ tool and Modified Checklist for Toddlers and a final diagnosis using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition for autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was 17 per 10,000 young children – in other words, one in 589 young children. Boys were found at higher risk of autism (one in 423 boys; one in 1026 girls). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder was higher in urban environments than in rural ones – 25/10,000 and 14/10,000, respectively. More autism spectrum disorder children were found in advanced age groups of parents, especially mothers, and in households with a higher wealth quintile. This survey is significant as it covers both urban and rural areas and specifically targets very young children. The involvement of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, as well as support from the entire healthcare system infrastructure, makes this survey more representative on a national level. Its results will form a database to support the development of an effective early intervention programme in Bangladesh. We hope it will prove useful for researchers, clinicians and frontline healthcare workers, and inform the decisions of policymakers and funders in Bangladesh.
Akhter S, Hussain AHME, Shefa J et al. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among the children aged 18-36 months in a rural community of Bangladesh: A cross sectional study. F1000Research 2018, 7:424 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.13563.1)
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of complex neurodevelopment disorders characterized by repetitive and characteristic patterns of behavior and difficulties with social communication and interaction. In Bangladesh, autism in children is a significant burden of disease. Early identification of ASD could improve quality of life. The study has explored at the prevalence of ASD among rural community children aged between 18-36 months.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the 5286 children aged between 18-36 months in a rural community. Household level data was collected using screening tool MCHAT. Primarily screening positive 66 children were invited for final diagnosis in a health camp. Diagnosis was made by different staging started from primary screening, followed by validation using MCHAT and flash card. Final diagnosis was made by the paediatric neurologists, child clinical psychologists and development therapist using diagnostic tools (DSM-IV & ADOS).
Results: 04 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prevalence of the ASD in rural community was found 0.75/1000 children. Among the four ASD cases three were boys and one was girl and age range was between 20- 30 months. Whereas, the highest prevalence rate found was for the cerebral palsy which was 5.6/1000 children and Developmental delay (2.6/1000) was the next to that.
Conclusions: Age specific autism (18-36 months) in children is found higher in rural community of Bangladesh. In order to get more comprehensive information on autism in other age groups of children in rural community, further study is required. Early detection in rural community could help the policy makers to decentralization of health services among the ASD children in rural community.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), children, prevalence, rural community, Bangladesh
Akhter S, Akhter A M, Afrin A, Akhter T, Shefa J, Haque M M. Categorical states of Autism by using ADCL (Autism Diagnostic Check-List) in Dhaka. European Academic Research 2016 May; Vol. IV, Issue 2
Abstract: Autism is known as a complex developmental disorder which varies widely in severity and symptom and may go unrecognized, especially in mildly affected children or masked by more debilitating handicaps. This cross-sectional study was conducted among conveniently selected 200 autistic children attended in Institute of Paediatric Neurodisorder & Autism(IPNA), Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. Autistic children were categorized into mild, lower moderate, higher moderate and severe. About 44% and 35% children came from 3-5 years and <3 years’ age group whereas two-third were boys and one-third were girls. Most of the mothers were middle age group and completed SSC to post graduate level education. About 31.5%, 39.5% and 29% family had monthly income 5000-15000, 16000-30000and >30000 BDT. Mild, low moderate, high moderate and severe autism were 62%, 24%, 7.5% and 6.5%.Significant association was found between age group of children and category of autism i.e. mild autism was more prominent in early age (p=0.001<0.05).
Key words: Category of autism, ADCL
Abstract: The aim of this study was to adapt Attention deficiency/hyperactivity disorder criteria in DSM 5 for measuring ADHD level of children of Bangladesh. Data were collected from 238 students ages between 5 to 17 years of three different schools of Dhaka city. Psychometric properties were measured through Cronbach’s alpha (0.748), split-half (0.785), test-retest (0.793), which were satisfactory, respectively at 0.05, 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance. The demonstration of construct validity with Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R) was 0.659 also satisfactory. Thus psychometric results support that ADHD criteria in Bangla is suitable for use in Bangladeshi context. Mental health professionals can use Bangla adapted ADHD criteria as a useful tool to assess children’s attention deficiency and hyperactivity.
Abstract: Bangladesh is a developing country where most of the people live in under a minimum level of EB and SES. Nowadays Autism is a growing condition in our country. The present study assessed the Educational background and Socio–Economic status of Parents of ASD child. A total of 200 parents of 100 children with ASD (2-8 years old) were conveniently selected to collect data from existing data source of IPNA. Result shows that the incomes of most of the family of children with ASD are between 15000-30000 ranges. Mothers of children with Autism are studied up to only S. S. C. level where father’s educational level is Graduation. We all know that mothers are the first instructor of the child, so EB effects on handling the ASD child, parental counseling and instruction for management. For collecting management tools SES is a very important factor also.
Akhter S, Shefa J, Hasan M.M. Nutritional Status of Children with Neurodevelopment Disorders from a Tertiary Medical Center of Bangladesh. Birdem Med J 2018; 8(2): 118-125.
Akhter S, Nandi SR, Shefa J, Akhter T, Islam K, Haque M M. Relation between Age and Anxiety Level of Autistic Children’s mother. European Academic Research 2015 Dec; Vol. III, Issue 9
Akhter S, Mannan M, Biswas A. Neurology Determinants of epilepsy in infancy in Bangladesh: A case-control study Neurology Asia 2013; 18(1) : 17 – 22
Akhter S, Akther M, Shefa J, Islam K, Akhter T, Haque M. An Analysis on Common Symptoms of Children with Autism. European Academic Research 2014 Dec; Vol. II, Issue 9
Akhter S, Mannan M. Aetiology in childhood epilepsy: Bangladesh perspective. Neurology Asia 2007; 12 (SS- 1): 75
Akhter S, Rahman MM. A Clinical Profile of Epilepsy with Onset of seizures in the first Year of Life. Phil J Neurol 2007 Jan; 10(SS- 1): 62
Akhter S, Rahman MM, Mahbuba Nazneen. Associated Impairments of Cerebral Palsy: Among Children in Bangladesh. Indian J Pediatr. 2004 Oct; SS-1: 66
Akhter S, Rahman MM, Islam MN. Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy. Brain & Dev 2001; 23(146)
Akhter S, Rahman MM. Cerebral Palsy-Clinical Profile and Predisposing Factors. Bangladesh J of Neuroscience 2004 Jan; 20 (1): 9-15
Akhter S, Islam MN, Rahman SAR. Comparative Study Thyroid Hormones in Malnourished Children. J Comilla Med Coll Teach Assoc. 2003 Jul; 5(2): 66-72
The status of blood amonia level in valproic acid monotherapy for epileptic patients: a prospective study, Gopen Kumar Kundu, Shaheen Akhter, Md Mizanur Rahman, Jannatara Shefa, European Academic Research, Vol IV (3) June 2016
Evaluation of Cognitive Effects of Topiramate and Oxcarbazepine in Children with Epilepsy, Gopen Kumar Kundu, Jannatara Shefa, European Academic Research, Vol VI (3) June 2016
Vertical Transmission of HIV in infant and its prevention-A Review, Kundu GK, Nahar N, Shamsuzzaman M, Alam MK, Nandi ER, Uddin MN. J. Dhaka Natl. Med. Coll. Hosp. 2010; 15(1):48-52.
Etiology and Risk Factors of Febrile Seizure-An Updte, Kundu GK, F Rabin, Nandi ER, Sheikh Naveen, Akhter Shaheen. Bangladesh J Child Health 2010; 34(3):103-112.
A Child with Fahr’s Disease, Gopen Kumar Kundu, Shima Bhadra, Sanjida Ahmed, BAOJ Pediat 2017 3: 23: 036
Clinical and Neuro-radiological Presentation of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in Tertiary Care Centre, Kundu GK, Ahmed S, Akhter S, Islam MT, Dwa T, Sabbir AM.
Adrenoleukodystrophy: two case reports, Kundu GK, Rahman MM, Amin MR, Habib MA, Ahmed S, Kabir MS, Laila K
Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis-a case report, Kundu Gopen Kumar, Md Mizanur Rahman.
Congenital Cytomegalovirus infection present as lissencephaly. GK Kundu, Mohsina Akhter, Akhter, MM Rahman. Bangladesh Journal of Child Health, 2010:Vol 34 (3); 51-55
Neurologic Wilson disease and its Management- An Update, GK Kundu. Bangladesh Journal of Child Health, Vol 34, (3), December 2010
Leigh syndrome: A rare mitochondrial disorder, Kundu, G., Akhter, A., Akhter, S., & Rhaman, M. (2016). Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Journal, 9(2), 126-128. https://doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v9i2.28889
Pattern of Presentation of Neurocutaneous Syndromes in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh, Gopen Kumar Kundu, Sanjida Ahmed, Shaheen Akhter, Md Nasir Hossain, Rana Kumar Biswas, Bangladesh J Child Health 2019; Vol 43 (1): 15-20
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Associated with Basal Ganglia Involvement – 2 case reports. Kundu GK, Mahmud MM, Rahman MM, Bangladesh Journal of Child Health, 2010: Vol 34(3);34-36
Congenital toxoplasmosis associated with severe intractatable calcification and West syndrome, Kundu GK, Nandi ER, Saha A, Habib A, Rahman MM- BMJ Vol: 43 (3), Page: 165-167, September 2014
Moyamoya disease-two case reports, Kundu, G., Benzamin, M., Kundu, N., Roy, S., Hossain, M. N., Rahman, M. M., & Akter S, BMJ. 45(2): May 2016
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy – A Case Report, Gopen Kumar Kundu, Shaheen Akhter, M Mizanur Rahman, BSMMU J Vol. 9 (1): January 2016
Bacteriological Profile of Neonatal Sepsis in a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh– S Begum, MA Baki, GK Kundu, I Islam, MK Talukdar. Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons, Vol. 30 (2), Page: 66-70, 2012
Nephritic Syndrome in Children-Role of Intravenous Cyclophosphamide in Compare with Oral Cyclophosphamide in Steroid Dependent Cases – Alam K M Muinuddin G, Shamshuzzaman M, Kundu Gopen Kumar.
Acute viral encephalitis in Bangladesh Factors associated with disease and its outcome in a tertiary hospital. Shamshuzzaman Md., Islam Prof. Md. Nazrul, Kundu Gopen Kumar, Md Kabir Alam, Fahmida Khanam, Uddin Md. Nasir.
A Reappraisal of Clinical Characterstics of Typhoid Fever, ABM Shahidul Alam, Zaman Sanjana, Farhana Chaiti, Sheikh Naveen, Kundu Gopen Kumar. Bangladesh J Child Health 2010;34(3):80-85.
Sexual and Urinary Outcome after Surgical Treatment for Low Rectal Cancer, Khair MA, MS, Khanam F, Haque S, Hoque MM, Rahman MM, Paul BK, Kundu GK- Mymensingh Medical Journal, Vol: 22 (3), Page: 444-451, July 2013
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate of Normal School Going Children in Mymensingh Municipality, Islam MN, Hoque MA, Latif SA, Mollah Ah, Hossain MA, Rahman MA, Khan AH, Paul BK, Kundu GK- Mymensingh Medical Journal, Vol: 22 (3), Page:438-443, July 2013
Leigh syndrome: A rare mitrochondrial disorder, Archana Shrestha Yadav, Mahbub Muhatanabbi, Gopen Kumar Kundu, CA Kawser
Fouzia Hoque, Child Development Therapist, IPNA
Fouzia Hoque, Child Development Therapist, IPNA